Notes By – Md Rashid

Q1. What changes were felt after formation of Nation-State ?

1. It changed people’s understanding.

2. It developed people’s identity.

3. It developed sense of belonging.

4. People developed new symbols , Icons and songs.

5. It redefined the boundaries of communities.

Q2. How was the growth of modern Nationalism was felt in India and Vietnam ?   

1. It was felt as anti-colonial movement.

2. People started discovering their unity.

3. The nature of exploitation tied many groups together.

4. Each class and group felt the effects of colonialism differently.

Q3. What kind of changes were felt in India due to first world war ?

1. The war created a new economic and political situation.

2. It led to a huge increase in defence expenditure .

3. Custom duties were raised and income tax introduced.

4. Prices doubled in between 1913 to 1918.

5. Forced recruitment system was introduced.

6. Crops failed in many parts of India.

7. 13 million people died due to famine and the epidemic .

Q4. What was Mahatma Gandhi opinion of satyagraha ?

1.  Satyagraha was a novel method of mass agitation.

2. The idea of satyagraha emphasised power of truth and the need to search for truth.

3. It suggested that physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor.

4. Without taking revenge a satyagrahi could win the battle through non violence.

5. Oppressors should persuade to see the truth .

Q5. After arriving India, what were the immediate movements organised by Mahatma Gandhi ?

1.  1916 – 1917 , he supported peasants of champaran against Indigo plantation.

2. In 1917 – 18 ,he organised a satyagraha movement to support the peasants of the Kheda district(Gujrat).

3. In 1918 , he supported the cotton mill workers of Ahmedabad.

Q6. When and by whom Rowlatt Act was passed ?

1.  In 1919 , by Imperial Legislative Council .

Q7. What was Rowlatt  Act ?

1. It gave the government enormous  power to repress political activities ?

2. It allowed detention of political prisoners without trail for 2 years.

Q8. What was the action and reaction of Indians and British against Rowlatt Act ?

1.  Rallies were organised in various cities .

2. Workers went on strike in railway workshop.

3. Shops were closed down .

4. Railways and Telegraphs were disrupted.

5. Mahatma Gandhi was not allowed to enter in Delhi.

6. On 10th April, the police in Amritsar fired .

7. People attack on Railway, Banks and Post office.

8. Marshal law was imposed.

Q9. Write about Jallianwala Bagh Massacre ?

1. On 13th April, Jallianwala Bagh massacre took pale in Amritsar.

2. People gathered there peacefully.

3. People were unaware of the martial law.

4. General dyer blocked the exit points and opened fired on the crowd.

5. Thousands of people died.

6. Dyer described it a moral effect, terror and awe.

Q10. What was the action and reaction of Indians and the British against Jallianwala Bagh massacre ?

1.  There were strikes, clashes and attack on government buildings .

2. Satyagrahis were forced to rub their noses on the ground, crawl on the streets and do salaam.

3. People were flogged and villages were bombed .

4. Mahatma Gandhi called off movement.

Q11. Write about Khilafat movement ?

  1. After 1st world war Turkey was defeated by the British and forced to accept harsh treaty.
  2. 2. The post of khalifa was seized who was spiritual head of Islamic world.
  3. Gandhiji saw it a right movement to unite Hindus and Muslims for bigger movement.
  4. A khilafat committee was formed in Bombay in March 1919 .
  5.  Mohammad Ali and Shaukat Ali joined Gandhiji for mass movement.
  6. At the Kolkata session of the congress in September 1920, It was decided to start Non – Cooperation movement in support of Khilafat as well as for Swaraj.

Q12. What was the opinion of Mahatma Gandhi in Hind Swaraj ?

1. He told that British rule was established in  India with cooperation of Indians and survived because of cooperation.

2.If Indians do not cooperate it will collapse within a year and Swaraj would come.

Q13. How could Non cooperation became a movement ?

1.  Gandhiji advised to surrender title and awards .

2. He told to boycott civil services, army, police, courts, legislative councils , schools, colleges and foreign goods.

3. Gandhiji and Shaukat Ali went around the country to gain support.

4. Some congress members were not interested to boycott the council elections to be held in November 1920 fearing that there might be violence.

5. Finally at Nagpur sessions in December 1920, it was agreed to start non – cooperation movement.

Q14. At which place council election was not boycotted and why ?

1. At Madras, where the Justice Party, the Party of the Non – Brahmans felt that entering the council was one way of gaining some power.

Q15. What was the economic effect of Non cooperation movement ?

1. Foreign goods were boycotted.

2. Liquor shops were picketed .

3. Foreign clothes were burned.

4. The import value of Foreign clothes dropped  from 102 crore to Rs 57 crore.

5. The production of India textile miles and handlooms went up.

Q16. Why did the pace of the Non cooperation movement slow down in Cities ?

1.  Khadi clothes were more expensive than mill clothes so poor cannot purchase it.

2. After closing British Institution, there was no alternatives Indian Institutions .

3. Students and Teachers were forced to re-join.

Q17. What was the nature of non cooperation movement in country side ?

1. In Awadh , peasants were led by Baba Ramchandra .

2. The movement was against Talukdars and Landlords .

3. Peasants had to work as begar.

4. Peasants had no security as tenure .

5. Peasants were regularly evicted.

6. At many places Nai-dhobi  bandhs were called.

7. By October 1920 Awadh Kisan Sabha was set up under Jawaharlal Nehru , Baba Ramchandra and others.

8. Within months 300 branches had been setup.

9. During non cooperation movement the houses of Talukdars and Merchants were attacked, Bazars were looted.

10. The name of Gandhiji was being involved to take advantage.

Q18. What Kind of tribal movement took place during non cooperation movement ?

1. In the Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh, a militant guerrilla movement spread in early 1920’s.

2. Their forest rights were taken and they were forced to do beggar.

3. The movement started under Alluri Sitaram Raju.

4. He asked people to follow Gandhiji , wear khadi and give up drinking.

5. They attacked police stations and killed British officials.

6. Raju was captured and executed in 1924.

Q19. How does plantation workers of Assam describe Swaraj ?

1. For them freedom means the right to move freely in and out of the confined space.

2. It means retaining a link with the village from where they had come .

Q20. What is Inland Emigration  Act of 1859 ?

1. According to this Act plantations workers were not permitted to leave the gardens without permission.

Q21. What happened to garden workers during non cooperation movement ?

1. They thought Gandhi Raj has come in which they will be given land in their own village.

2. Due to transport strike they were caught and brutally punished.

Q22. Why Gandhiji called back non cooperation movement ?

1. Due to Chauri – Chaura  violence in which 22 policemen burned alive .

Q23. Who founded Swaraj Party  and what was their view ?

1. It was founded by C.R. Das and Motilal Nehru.

2. They wanted to join the council and expose the short comings of the British through the council.

Q24. What factors shape Indian politics towards late 1920’s ?

1. The first was world wide economic depression .

2. Fall of agricultural prices.

3. Export declined.

4. There was revolt in the villages .

Q25. What was Simon Commission and Why Indians rejected it ?

1. This commission was formed by Tory government in Britain under John Simon.

2. The purpose was to look after constitutional development in India.

3. As there was no Indian member the commission was rejected by Indians.

4. All political parties gave a slogan under “Simon Go Back”.

Q26. What was dominion status ?

1. It was a vague offer of Lord Irwin in October 1929.

2. It was a concept of baseless freedom.

Q27. What was the importance of Lahore session ?

1. It took place in 1929 under Jawaharlal Nehru .

2. It demanded Poorna Swaraj.

3. It was declared that 26th January 1930 could be celebrated as Independence day all over the country.

4. It attracted less people.

Q28. What was eleven demands of Gandhiji ?

1. On 31st January 1930, Gandhiji sent a letter to Lord Irwin demanding eleven points.

2. These demands covered all section of people.

3. One of the demand was to abolish salt tax.

4. In case of rejection, Gandhiji told to  start civil disobedience movement.

Q29. Write about civil disobedience movement.

1. It was started by Gandhiji along with 78 followers.

2. It was over 240 miles from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi .

3. They walked for 24 days about 10 miles a day.

4. On 6th April at Dandi he violated the salt law by manufacturing salt

5. This marked the beginning of the civil disobedience movement.

Q30. What was the reaction of British against civil disobedience movement ?

1. There was brutal repression .

2. 1 Lakh people were arrested .

3. All important leaders were put behind the bar.

4. Due to violence Mahatma Gandhi called back movement.

Q31. What do you understand by Gandhi Irwin pact ?

1. It was signed on 5th March 1931 between Lord Irwin and Mahatma Gandhi.

2. Mahatma Gandhi agreed to call back civil disobedience movement.

3. Mahatma Gandhi agreed to participate in second round table conference.

4. British agreed to release political prisoners.

Q32. What happened in second round table conference ?

1. It failed due to separate electorate .

2. Once again Gandhiji declared civil disobedience movement.

3. All important leaders were arrested .

4. Indian national congress was declared illegal.

Q33. How rich peasants participated in  civil disobedience movement ?

1. The Patidars of Gujrat and Jats of Uttar Pradesh .

2. They were hard hit because of trade depression and falling prices.

3. They failed to pay revenue .

4. For them fight for swaraj was a struggle against high revenues.

5. They were disappointed when civil disobedience movement was called back and when it restarted they did not show any interest.

Q34. What was the motive of poor peasants towards civil disobedience movement ?

1. Due to depression they found it difficult to pay rent.

2. They wanted their rent to be remitted .

3. They supported socialist and communist .

4. They were not fully supported  by congress because most of the congress supporters were from rich class.

Q35. What was the role of rich business man in Civil disobedience movement ?

1. They made huge profit during 1st World War.

2. They wanted less restriction on trade .

3. They wanted protection against import of foreign goods.

4. They wanted a Rupee – Sterling foreign  exchange rate .

5. They formed the Indian Industrial and Commercial Congress in 1920 and the Federation of the Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industries in 1927 led by Purushottam Das Thakur Das and Gd Birla.

6. They gave financial support.

7. They refused to buy or sell imported goods .

8. They see Swaraj as less restriction on  trade and more self profit.

9. They lost their interest after failure of round table conference.

10. Some were worried of Socialist development in Congress.

Q36. What was the role of Industrial working class in civil  disobedience movement ?

1. They did not participate in large number accept in Nagpur region.

2. They demanded good wages and good working condition.

3. There were strikes by railway workers, dock workers, Chotanagpur , tin mines workers.

4. Congress did not support them fully afraid that industrialist will be annoyed .

Q37. What was the role of women in civil disobedience movement ?

1. Thousands of women became supporters of Gandhiji.

2. They participated in all protest movement.

3. They also went in jail.

Q38. What was Gandhiji opinion about women ?

1. He told that the duty of women is to look after home, to be good mother and good wives.

2. Congress was not interested to give them any position or authority.

3. They wanted to see their symbolic presence .

Q39. What was Gandhiji opinion towards Dalit ?

1.  For long Congress ignored Dalits fearing Sanatanis (high caste) .

2. Mahatma Gandhi declared that Swaraj will not be achieved for  100 years if untouchability is not removed.

3. He called untouchables ‘ Harijans ’ .

4. He organised Satyagraha to secure them entry into temples, public wells, tanks, roads and schools.

5. He cleaned toilets to  dignify the work of Bhangi .

6. Most of the Dalits wanted political empowerment, positions and seats .

7. Therefore their name was less in civil disobedience movement.

Q40. What was the role of doctor B.R. Ambedkar ?

1. He organised the depressed classes association in 1930.

2. He clashed with Mahatma Gandhi for separate electorate for Dalits in second round table conference .

3. When his demand was accepted, Gandhiji begun a fast unto death .

4. To resolve this issue Poona Pact was signed in 1932.

5. It gave depressed classes reserved seats in provincial and central legislative councils.

Q41. What was the role of Hindus and Muslims at  the eve of civil disobedience movement ?

1. After non cooperation Khilafat movement, Muslims were less interested in Indian National Congress.

2. From mid 1920, INC was found a little close to Hindu Mahasabha .

3. At a number of places communal riots took place .

4. INC and Muslim League attempted to reunite in 1927.

5. Major differences was on the question of representation .

6. Mohammad Ali Jinnah told to leave the demand if Muslims were assured reserved seats in the central assembly and representation in proportion to population in the Muslim dominated provinces (Bengal and Punjab).

7. Due to a follower of Hindu Mahasabha M.R Jayakar efforts failed in 1928.

8. Under this background Muslims participated  in civil disobedience movement under confusion and uncertainty .

Q42. When did sense of Nationalism developed ?

1. It spreads when people begin to believe they are all part of the same nation, when they discover some unity that binds them together.

Q43. When did  sense of collective belonging develop ?

1. This came partly through the experience of united struggle.

2. History and fiction, folklore and songs, popular prints and symbols, all played a part in the  making of Nationalism .

Q44. When the concept of image developed as Nation and Why ?

1. The purpose of image was to identify Nation .

2. The identity of India was presented as Bharat Mata.

3. It was created by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay in 1870, he wrote ‘Vande Matram’ hymn to the motherland.

4. It was included in Anand math and sung during Swadeshi movement in Bengal.

Q45. Who was Ababindranath Tagore ?

1. He painted his famous image of Bharat Mata.

2. In painting she was shown calm, composed, divine and spiritual .

3. Various images of Bharat Mata developed sense of Nationalism.

Q46. In what way Folklore developed sense of Nationalism ?

1. Folktales sung by bards gave a true picture of traditional culture.

2. It developed love towards National identity.

3. It restored a sense of pride in once past.

4. Natesa shastri published a massive four volume collection of Tamil folktales ‘ the folklore of south India ‘.

Q47. Write about National flag ?

1. It was another attempt to develop sense of Nationality .

2. During Swadeshi movement, a tricolour flag (red, green, yellow) was designed.

3. It had it lotuses representing 8 provinces.

4. It had a crescent moon representing Hindus and Muslims .

5. By 1921, Gandhiji developed Swaraj flag, a tricolour ( red, green, white ) , a spinning wheel in the centre, representing Gandhian ideal of self help.

Q48. What do you understand by Reinterpretation of History ?

1. It was another way of developing sense of Nationalism .

2. Indian writers wrote about the glorious past where art and architecture, science and mathematics, religion and culture, law and philosophy, craft and trade had flourished .

3. When Hindu iconography was praised then people of other communities failed leftout.