Notes By – Md Rashid

Frederic Sorrieu :-

1. He was a French artist.

2. In 1848, he prepared a series of four prints.

3. He dreamt to see democratic and republic world.

4. In first series he shown a chain of people of Europe and America of all ages offering homage to the statue of liberty.

5. The female figure marked liberty, enlightenment and charter of rights of man.

6. Absolutist institution were found shattered

7. All the countrymen  were marching with their flags.

8. Christ,Saints and Angels were blessing them.

Nation-State :-

1. It is the first step towards nation as a political concept.

2. It was first felt in European countries.

3. It developed a sense of common identities.

The French revolution and the idea of the nation :-

1. The French revolution of 1789 led to the transfer of sovereignty from the monarchy.

2. It proclaimed that it was the people who would constitute the nation and shape its destiny.

3. It created a sense of collective identity.

4. It gave the idea of La Patrie(The Father Land) and Citoyen(The Citizen) along with equality under a constitution.

5. A new French tricolor flag was chosen.

6. The Estates General and later national assembly was created.

7. New hymns were composed, oaths taken and martyrs commemorated .

8. Uniform law was introduced.

9. Uniform system of weights and measures were adopted.

10. French became the common language.

11. Jacobin clubs were established.

12. French army moved into Holland, Belgium, Switzerland and Italy.

Napoleonic Code :-

1. The civil code of 1804 is known as Napoleonic code .

2. It ended privileges based on birth.

3. It established equality before the law.

4. It gave the right to property.

5. It was introduced in Dutch, Switzerland, Italy and Germany.

6. It abolished feudal system.

7. It ended serfdom.

8. It removed guild restriction.

9. New conquered nations early accepted the changes but later on objected.

The making of nationalism in Europe :-

1. Germany, Italy and Switzerland were divided into kingdoms, Duchies and Cantons.

2. Eastern and Central Europe were under autocratic monarchies with diverse people.

3. They had no collective identity and common culture.

4. They spoke different languages.

5. They belonged to different ethnic groups.

6. The Habsburg Empire was a patchwork of different regions and people.

7. It included Tyrol, Austria and Sudetenland.

8. Bohemia was dominated by German speaking.

9. It has also Italian influence at Lombardy and Venetia.

10. In Hungary,half of the population spoke Magyar.

11. In Galicia, Aristocracy spoke polish.

The Aristocracy and the New middle class :-

1. Landed Aristocracy was the dominant class.

2. The members of this class were united by a common way of life.

3. They owned Estates and town houses .

4. They spoke French for diplomacy.

5. Their families were connected by the ties of marriage.

6. The majority of the population was made up of the peasantry.

7. In the West land was farmed by farmers and small owners ,in the east land was cultivated by serfs ,in the western and parts of central Europe their was emergence of industrial town.

8. After industrial revolution there was emergence of new social groups such as workers, industrialists, businessmen and professionals.

What did liberal nationalism stand for :-

1. The ideas of national unity in Europe was allied to the ideology of liberalism.

2. Liberalism derives from the Latin word Liber means free.

3. Politically it means concept of government by consent.

4. Since French revolution it stood for the end of autocracy, privileges, a constitution, representative government and a parliament.

Suffrage Movement :-

1. Voting rights were given to  rich people.

2. Jacobins gave right to vote to all  adult males for a short period .

3. Napoleonic code lived in limited suffrage.

4. Women were reduced to the status of a minor.

Economic Liberalism :-

1. It means freedom of markets and abolition of restriction on goods and capital.

2. In the 19th century, within the confederation there was serious economic problems due to different set of laws regarding weight and measures, currency and taxation.

3. To overcome these problems a customs union or Zollverein was founded in 1834 by Prussia.

4. The union abolished tariffs barriers and reduced the number of currencies from 30 to 02.

5. Transportation further added its support.

A new conservation after 1815 :-

1. After defeat of Napoleon a spirit of conservatism developed in Europe.

2. Conservatives believed in established traditions like the monarchy, the church, social hierarchies ,property and the family.

3. Most of the conservatives believed in the Napoleonic changes like strong monarchy, a modern army, an efficient bureaucracy, a dynamic economic, the abolition of feudalism and serfdom.

4. In 1815 Vienna meeting was called by Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria.

5. The congress was hosted by the Austrian chancellor duke Metternich (Austrian ruler) .

6. The bourbon dynasty was restored.

7. France lost the territories annexed by Napoleon.

8. A series of states were setup on the boundaries of France to prevent French expansion.

9. The kingdom of the Netherlands and Belgium was setup in the north.

10. Genoa was added to Piedmont in the south.

11. Prussia was given new territories in the west.

12. Austria was given control of northern Italy.

13. 39 German confederation remain untouched.

14. In the East, Russia was given part of Poland.

15. Prussia was given a part of Saxony.

16. The new order was attempted to revive old monarchy at the cost of suppression of rights and liberties.

The Revolutionaries :-

1. After 1815 liberal nationalists went underground.

2. Secret societies sprang up.

3. Revolutionaries supported liberty, freedom and formation of nation-states.

4. Giuseppe Mazzini born in Genoa in 1807.

5. He was a member of secret society carbonary.

6. At the age of 24 he was exiled for attempting a revolution in Liguria.

7. He founded two underground societies-Young Italy in Marseilles and Young Europe in Berne.

8. The members were from Poland, France, Italy and Germany.

9. Mazzini believed nations are natural unit of mankind. Italy could not exist as patchwork. It should be single unified republic.

10. According to Metternich” he was the most dangerous enemy of our social order”.

The age of Revolutions 1830-1848 :-

1. Against conservatives revolution started in Italy, Germany, Ottoman Empire ,Ireland and Poland.

2. The liberal nationalist were middle class people, professors, school teachers, clerks and members of the commercial middle classes.

3. The  first upheaval took place in France in July 1830 against Bourbon kings.

4. The king was replaced by a constitutional monarch Louis Philippe.

5. Under its impact, Belgium broke away from Netherlands.

6. Similar Revolution started in Greek in 1821 against Ottoman empire who ruled since 15th century.

7. The  English poet Lord Byron organised funds and participated in war but died in 1824.

8. After the treaty of Constantinople in 1832 Greece became an independent nation.

The Romantic Imagination and National Feeling :-

1. Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation through art and poetry, stories and music.

2. Romanticism was a cultural movement which attempted to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment.

3. Romantic artist and poets criticized the glorification of reason and science.

4. They valued emotions , intuition and mystical feelings.

5. They wanted to create a shared collective heritage with a common cultural past.

6. German philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder believed in common culture, folk songs, folk poetry and folk dance.

7. In Poland people used vernacular languages and folklore.

8. Karol Kurpinski celebrated the national struggle through his operas and music, folk dances like the polonaise and mazurka.

9. In 1831 an armed rebellion took place in Poland against Russia which was crushed .

10. Polish was used by the clergy and church against the will of Russians therefore they were severely punished.

Hunger, Hardship and Popular revolt :-

1. The 1830’s were years of great economic crisis in Europe.

2. There was huge increase in population in Europe.

3. There was job crisis .

4. Industrial goods of England were defeating local goods specially textile .

5. Aristocrats enjoyed power at the cost of farmers.

6. In 1848 food shortage and unemployment of France forced the ruler Louis Philippe to flee.

7. National assembly declared republic, granted suffrage to all above 21,right to work and employment.

8. In 1845 Weavers in Silesia revolted against contractors.

1848 : The Revolution of the Liberals :-

1. On the line of France other European  nations under middle class demanded constitutionalism with national unification.

2. They demanded the creation of a nation state on parliamentary principles.

3. In Germany revolutionary met at Frankfurt and decided to vote for an all Germans National Assembly.

4. On 18th may 1848,831 elected representatives placed themselves in the Frankfurt parliament convened in the church of St Paul.

5. They drafted a constitution for Germany headed by a king under parliament.

6. The king of Prussia Friedrich Wilhelm IV rejected it .

7. Slowly the parliament was dominated by Aristocracy who dissatisfied common people.

8. Troupes were called and assembly was disbanded .

9. Feminist movement continued throughout Europe but no liberty was granted to women.

10. After 1848, Eastern and Central Europe started accepting certain rights which was granted in Western Europe.

Making of Germany and Italy :-

1. Nationalist feelings were widespread among middle class Germans.

2. In 1848 they tried to unite the different regions of the German confederation into a nation-state.

3. They were repressed by the king, military and land owners(Junkers).

4. Chief minster Ottovon Bismark with the help of Prussian army and Bureaucracy fought seven years war against Austria ,Denmark and France.

5. After defeating them unification took place in January 1871.

6. Prussian king William 1 became king after a ceremony at heated Hall of  Mirrors in the palace of Versailles.

7. The new state gave emphasis on modernizing the currency, banking and judiciary.

Italy Unified :-

1. Like Germany , Italy was divided into several dynastic states and multinational Habsburg Empire .

2. During the middle of 19th century , Italy was divided into seven states of which only one Sardinia Piedmont was ruled by an Italian prince.

3. The north was under Austrian Hapsburg , the center was under the pope and the Southern was under the Bourbon kings of Spain.

4. Revolutionary attempt was taken in 1831 and 1848 which failed .

5. Responsibility of unification now given to Sardinia – Piedmont ruler king Victor Emmanuel 11.

6. Due to diplomacy of Counts Cavour , Sardinia Piedmont defeated the Austrians in 1859.

7. Under the leadership of Giuseppe Garibaldi , a  large number of volunteers joined war.

8. In 1860 with the support of peasants ,they captured two Sicilies of South Italy.

9. In 1861 Victor Emanuel 11 was declared king of united Italy.

10. A number of illiterate Italians were an aware of liberal nationalists ideology.

The Strange case of Britain :-

1. In Britain the formation of the nation -state was not the result of  a sudden revolution but a long drawn out and process.

2. There was no British nation before 18th century .

3. The people had ethnic identity  such as English , Welsh , Scot  or Irish.

4. All ethnic groups had their own culture and political traditions .

5. England steadily drew powerful and influenced other nations.

6. In 1688 , English parliament seized power from monarchy.

7. The united kingdom of Great Britain came into existence after the Act of Union (1707) between England and Scotland.

8. English parliament dominated and Scottish culture and politics were suppressed.

9. There was repression of Scottish Catholics.

10. Scottish people were forbidden to speak their Gaelic language and wear their national dress.

11. Ireland suffered a similar fate.

12. The English helped the protestants of Ireland to dominate over catholic .

13. After a failed revolt lead by Wolfe Tone and his united Irish man (1798) Ireland was forcibly taken into united kingdom in 1801.

14. The symbols of new Britain were popularized such as the union jack , the national anthem and English language.

Visualizing the Nation :-

1. Artists of 18th and 19th centuries represented a country as a person or female figure .

2. It was an abstract idea could be termed as Allegory of the nation.

3. During French revolution female allegory gave the idea of liberty , justice and the republic .

4. Different symbols were adopted to represent an idea such as red cap and broken chain .

5. In France she was Christened Marianne a popular , Christian name  which gave the idea of peoples nation.

6. Marianne image was erected in public and marked on coins and stamps.

7. Similarly Germania became the allegory of the German nation.

8. She wears a crown of oak leaves  as mark for heroism .

Nationalism and Imperialism :-

1. In the last quarter of the 19th century Nationalism became narrow creed with limited ends .

2. Nationalist groups became intolerant  of each other .

3. They manipulated Nationalism for their own imperialist aims.

4. It was witnessed in Europe after 1871 in Balkans .

5. Balkans included modern day Romania , Bulgaria , Albania Greece , Macedonia , Croatia , Bosnia – Herzegovina , Slovenia , Serbia , Montenegro who were known as Slavs.

6. A large number of Balkans were under  ottoman empire.

7. The spread of the ideas of romantic Nationalism in the Balkans together with the disintegration of the Ottoman empire made this region very explosive.

8. The Balkan states were jealous of each other  and wanted to gain more territory at the expense of others.

9. It became the center of big power politics and factor of first world war.